Figure 1: Map over the Tempelfjord. Stations are marked with red dots for March, 2014, and black crosses for June, 2015. The calving edge of the Tunabre near station TM-1 is drawn by hand based on visual observations at the site 18th March 2014. The black strait line outside station TM-2 indicates the approximate position of the edge of the solid ice cover 18th March 2014. The dotted strait line just inside the station TM-4 indicate the position of the pancake ice 19th of March 2014.
The performed studies demonstrated that the effect of continental runoff was pronounced in the hydrochemical structure of the fjord waters not only in the warm but also in the cold season. The liquid flow from the coasts can be detected even during the cold period. (March in this region belongs to the cold season.) The effect of coastal inflow in March was shown by the decrease of water salinity and temperature immediately under the ice. It was especially pronounced at the stations in the ice in the inner fjord (TM-1–TM-3). The salinity decreased to 28 psu and less. The stations in the seaward part of the fjord (TM-4–TM-7) showed no decrease of salinity in the surface layer; the water temperature on the surface was slightly decreased. The under-ice stations in the inner fjord were characterized by lower Ctot and Alk values compared to pure seawater; pH values and nutrient content were slightly higher. Deeper than 5 m, the hydrochemical composition of water was quite constant. The stations at the outlet of the fjord on the open water showed lower nutrient concentrations and Ctot and Alk values, and higher content of dissolved oxygen. The water composition was uniform at the depths from 5 to 80 m.
|Station TM-1, Field work in the Tempelfjord , March 17-19, 2014|
|Station TM-3, Field work in the Tempelfjord , March 17-19, 2014|
|Station TM-6, Field work in the Tempelfjord , March 17-19, 2014|
The decrease of salinity in surface waters was also registered during the summer surveys. The salinity decreased to 10 psu in the inner part of the fjord (station TJ-1) and to 2 psu at the seaward stations. The water temperature decreased from the surface to the bottom at all the stations. This decrease amounted to 2–4o from the surface to the depth of 20 m. The upper 20–25-m layer showed decreased nutrient concentrations, Ctot and Alk values, oxygen content, DOC, and pH values. This effect was most pronounced at the fjord inner part. Most probably, the distribution of the hydrochemical parameters is determined by two key factors: the influence of continental runoff and the activity of aquatic biota.
One must conclude that the effect of continental runoff was strong during both the first and the second expeditions. Whereas numerous watercourses were seen at the fjord sides during the summer surveys in 2015, the only apparent source for desalination in 2014 was the meltwater of glacial origin.
|Station TJ-1, Field work in the Tempelfjord , June 17-18, 2015|
|Station TJ-2, Field work in the Tempelfjord , June 17-18, 2015|
|Station TJ-3, Field work in the Tempelfjord , June 17-18, 2015|
An comparison of the Russian and Norwegian methods of the carbonate system parameter analysis showed that both groups use the same method of determination of alkalinity (direct titration) but Norwegian colleagues mark the endpoint of titration potentiometrically while Russian scientist use the visual endpoint of determination (the Bruevich method). The results of the intercalibration has shown a high correlation level (0.99) between the measurements performed by the Norwegian and Russian Colleagues. Both the groups use the identical potentiometric techniques of the pH measurements in the past, but the Norwegian colleagues started to use spectrophotometric pH methods in the recent years.