Faglunsj har lange tradisjoner på NIVA. Her kombineres fag og foredrag med mat og mingling. Både eksterne og interne forskere er velkomne, så vel som andre interesserte.
Faglunsjen holdes som regel i møterom VIA, CIENS, Forskningsparken.
Tidspunkt er fra 11.30-12.00. Ingen påmelding nødvendig. Ta med matpakken og møt opp!
Velkommen til faglunsj torsdag 9. juli kl. 11.30-12.15.
"Paleolimnological evidence of global spread of hypoxia in freshwaters caused by local anthropogenic pressures" med Jean-Philippe Jenny Postdoc researcher, PhD. Centre Eau, Terre et Environnement (ETE), Institut national de la recherche scientifique (INRS), Université du Québec.
The recent development of seasonal or persistent hypoxia in many lakes and coastal environments around the world severely stresses ecosystems, causing a decline of fisheries, a loss of biodiversity, and an alteration of food webs, including mass mortality of fauna. In marine environments, global instrumental surveys showed that the number of hypoxic coastal sites exponentially increased since the 1950s. In lakes, however, long-term instrumental monitoring surveys remain limited, preventing a global reconstruction of hypoxia’s dynamic and pinpointing long-term causes of these changes on the continents. Nevertheless, hypoxic conditions are recorded in lakes when varve sediments start to be preserved once thresholds in oxygen-depleted conditions are crossed. Here, we compiled the time when varves started to be preserved in lakes over the last 300 years from 365 sites across the world as an indication of the global evolution of hypoxia on continents, and compared these data with anthropogenic and environmental variables compiled for each of these 365 watersheds. Additional sites in Europe were included in the study to reconstruct changes during the Holocene epoch.
Our results show that continental hypoxia started spreading worldwide before AD 1900, mainly because of local growth in population density, human footprint and land uses, leading to eutrophication. No significant correlation was found with changes in precipitation or temperature. Hypoxia in continental realm spread about 50 years prior to marine environments. Finally, no sign of general return to past well-oxygenated conditions are observed despite implementation of local restoration programs and implementation of policies limiting nutrients yields since several decades in Europe and North America. This highlights the low resilience of lacustrine systems in the context of the added likely stress due to global warming and population increase.
Velkommen til faglunsj onsdag 3. juni 11.30-12.00
"Applied aquaculture research: A case study" med Thor Jonassen, Akvaplan-NIVA.
The reputation and sustainability of the European salmon aquaculture industry has long been threaten by the environmental and economic challenges with salmon lice infestation since long term use of chemotherapeutica for delousing has made the parasite resistant. The most promising ecological sustainable biological method of delousing salmon is based on use of lump fish. Hence testing and development of a commercial production regime for lump fish and protocols for use in delousing is been crucial, and has been possible due to an extraordinary successful R&D programme initiated by NIVA's little daughter, Akvaplan-niva. After only 4 years of targeted and well-coordinated research and development, production of lump fish has reached a degree of industrialization where more than 15 commercial hatcheries for the species are established or under construction.
Thor Jonassen has served 25 years in the aquaculture industry in Norway and abroad, and is currently senior scientist at the Aquaculture Research Department at Akvaplan-niva. He holds an MSc in Aquaculture specialized on seawater acclimation of tilapia (O. spilurus spilurus) and a PhD on the topic environmental and genetic regulation of growth in Atlantic halibut, both from the University of Bergen. Since 1999 Jonassen has worked with business development and commercialization of new marine species for larger aquaculture enterprises like Stolt Sea Farm (Project manager cod), Marine Harvest (Marine fish technical manager), Cod Juveniles (General Manager) and Codfarmers (Manager for R&D and Quality). He currently works on industry projects related to salmonid production, new marine species and new technology related to species specific adaptation to RAS, brood stock management and genetics, juvenile production, production optimization and capture based aquaculture.
Velkommen til faglunsj mandag 1. juni 11.30-12.00
"Recent gene expression based studies of barramundi (Lates calcarcifer) collected from areas with different land use patterns in tropical north Queensland" med Sharon Hook.
The water quality of some freshwater catchments feeding into the Great Barrier Reef has elevated concentrations of suspended sediments, nutrients and photosystem II-inhibiting herbicides and other pesticides. To investigate potential impacts of changes in water quality on barramundi (Lates calcarifer) physiology, fish were collected from sites with different land-use patterns in tropical north Queensland. The transcript levels for two genes that can be markers for exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals were measured initially. Since we found some differences in the expression levels of these genes, controlled laboratory exposures were undertaken to try to identify the causative agent. RNA Seq was also used to characterize the hepatic transcriptomes of fish captured from the Daintree River, which drains a National Park and has a very low pesticide load. These transcriptomes were compared to those from fish captured in the Tully River, which drains agricultural areas and has higher pesticide loads. The differences in transcript abundance indicated elevated cortisol in fish from the Tully, with transcripts involved in fatty acid metabolism, amino acid metabolism, and citrate cycling were more abundant in these fish; and transcripts involved in immune responses were less abundant. Fish from the Tully also had an increased abundance of transcripts associated with xenobiotic metabolism. Previous laboratory studies have noted similar patterns in fish and amphibians exposed to atrazine. If these transcriptomic patterns are manifested at the whole organism level, the differences in water quality between the two rivers may affect organism growth and fitness.
Dr Sharon Hook is a Senior Ecotoxicologist in Oceans and Atmosphere at CSIRO, Centre for Environmental Contaminants Research, Lucas Heights, NSW. Dr Hook has over 20 years of experience in aquatic ecotoxicology and oceanography, particularly in the development and application of emerging molecular genomics approaches and biomarker based research. Sharon also has expertise in evaluating the influence of exposure route on toxicological response. Sharon’s research interests include applying modern –omics based approaches to environmental problems, determining the impacts of low level, long term toxic responses, and the design and implementation of toxicity testing. Sharon has worked with a vast array of environmental contaminants, including metals, oil, and pesticides, and with a variety of taxa, from bacteria to fish.
Velkommen til faglunsj torsdag 28. mai 11.30-12.00.
"GEMSS modeling package" med Magdalena Kempa.
GEMSS modelling is an integrated system of 3-D hydrodynamic and transport models, geographic information (GIS) and ecological data system. The system includes grid generator and editor, control file generator, 2-d and 3-d post processing viewers and additional tools that include meteorological data processor, as well as flow data processor. The hydrodynamic platform is integrated into the GEMSS and provides 3 dimensional water flow fields from which the distribution of the various constituents could be easy computed. These constituents are grouped into the several modules such as the hydrodynamics, the water quality, the sediment transport, particle tracking, the oil and chemical spills, the entrainment and toxics module.
Dr. Magdalena Kempa is a research scientist in NIVA. She holds a Ph.D. degree on the numerical modeling of the oil spill spreading in the Baltic Sea from the Technical University of Lodz in 2006 and worked as post doc in Institut Universitaire Europeen de la Mer(IUEM) in Brest, France. Her primary focus of research is on oceanography lay, on the development and application of the numerical models to support the field experiments and the ocean observations, and on the impact of physical environment on ecosystem functions. She has used several marine and the ecological modeling software such as MIKE 21, GEOSYS, FEMSYS and GEMSS. The international projects she involved include PANGEA SI Web project, SMART project (Sustainable Management of the Available Water Recourse with remote technologies dedicated for Lower Jordan Valley and Middle East Area), project IWAS (Water management for International Water Research Alliance Saxony), VISLA project, SAFEPORT MARTEC ERA NET project.
Velkommen til faglunsj onsdag 29. april 11.30-12.00.
"Exploring parameter spaces for uncertainty evaluation - heat transfers from small lakes" med José-Luis Guerrero.
José-Luis Guerrero's research interests are related to uncertainty in environmental modelling: from data uncertainties to improving model-evaluation tools. He is particularly interested in different manners of exploring parameter spaces, sometimes borrowing tools from computational geometry.
Exploring parameter spaces for uncertainty evaluation -- heat transfers from small lakes.
Uncertainty in the main feedback between lakes and the atmosphere ---heat-exchange fluxes at their surface--- is often ignored in climate models. Analysis of the Canadian Small Lake Model (CSLM), a one-dimensional integral lake model, was performed to assess its ability to reproduce diurnal and seasonal variations in heat fluxes and the sensitivity of CSLM to changes in lake specific input parameters; lake depth, lake surface area and the light extinction coefficient (Kd). The Generalized Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation (GLUE) was applied to quantify the fluxes' uncertainty, comparing daily-averaged eddy covariance observations to the output of CSLM. Seven qualitative and two quantitative SA methods available in the PSUADE package were tested and the posterior likelihood of the modelled parameters, obtained from the GLUE analysis, were used to determine which of the parameters dominate model response and how much uncertainty is there in the modeled fluxes? The result shows the extinction coefficient (Kd), a measure of how much light penetrates the lake, dominates sensible and latent heat fluxes and the uncertainty in their estimates is strongly related to the accuracy with which it is measured.
Velkommen til faglunsj fredag 24. april 11.30-12.00 (NB! I møterom HAGEN 3).
"N and P in Impacted Catchments, Big and Small" av Maddy Rosamond.
Nutrient (nitrogen, phosphorus) addition to freshwater bodies can result in eutrophication, algal blooms, hypoxia, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and decreased drinking water quality. Nutrient cycling in streams has been studied extensively, but links between oxygen, nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) cycling and land use and physiography of catchments are still unclear. This talk addresses (a) physicochemical controls on production and emission of nitrous oxide (N2O) from rivers, (b) the use of stable isotopic ratios of N2O and NO3- to determine N cycling pathways and sources to rivers, (c) N2O production as a proxy for denitrification rates in rivers, (d) links between land use, physiography and stream N and P export in small agricultural streams, and (e) a novel approach for selecting small field sites for environmental studies.
Velkommen til faglunsj tirsdag 21. april 11.30-12.00
"Multistress on macrophytes during regime shifts" med Liesbeth Bakker.
Aquatic plants (macrophytes) play a keystone role in shallow aquatic ecosystems. In lakes, macrophytes stabilize clear-water conditions with high biodiversity and their decline can cause a regime shift to a turbid, state with lower biodiversity. Various mechanisms have been suggested triggering macrophyte collapse. Herbivory by waterfowl and fish seemed one of the obvious factors, but the response of macrophytes to herbivory is ambiguous. I hypothesize that with increasing nutrient availability, plant quality increases resulting in more herbivorier on macrophytes under eutrophic conditions. Furthermore, under shading from periphyton the herbivore effect can be enlarged as macrophytes experience multiple stress under eutrophic conditions. This may eventually trigger a collapse of macrophyte vegetation and a regime shift towards turbid, phytoplankton dominated conditions.
Velkommen til faglunsj torsdag 16. april 11.30-12.00
"The Nordic eScience Globalisation Initiative (NeGI) and the Nordic eInfrastructure Collaboration (NeIC) of Nordforsk" med Sverker Holmgren, Program Director for the Nordic eScience Globalisation Initiative (NeGI).
NordForsk was established in 2005 by the Nordic Council of Ministers for the purpose of strengthening Nordic research. It provides funding for research cooperation in national priority areas in which collaboration between Nordic research groups will serve to promote reciprocal added value. Within Nordforsk, eScience is a clear priority. eScience is about developing and applying advanced methods and tools within information technology, as well as promoting open access to digital resources and services such as networks, computing, data and instruments within all areas of research. The Nordic eScience Globalisation Initiative (NeGI) promotes Nordic collaboration on eScience by focussed efforts on eScience research and graduate education. In parallel, the Nordic e-Infrastructure Collaboration (NeIC) facilitates the development and operation of high-quality e-Infrastructure solutions in areas of joint Nordic interest.
Sverker Holmgren is the Program Director for the Nordic eScience Globalisation Initiative (NeGI). He is also Professor in Scientific Computing and Dean of Mathematics and Computer Science at Uppsala University. He sits on several international committees, including the Horizon 2020 Advisory Group on European Research Infrastructures and eInfrastructures, appointed by the European Commission.
Velkommen til faglunsj torsdag 26. mars 11.30-12.00
"Acknowledging natural variation in reference conditions for marine soft-bottoms" med Hege Gundersen, NIVA
Assessing the ecological conditions of a water body requires a comparison with reference conditions. A lot of work has been done on developing benthic indices, but less on methods for setting spatial specific reference conditions. In order to fulfil the requirements from the EU Water Framework Directive we need knowledge of the variability in reference conditions, as this will influence how and where action for improvement will be taken. This means moving from using one reference value for all areas to a method that differentiates between e.g. inner, sheltered bays/fjords and the outer, exposed coast. We explored the relationships between 10 benthic macroinvertebrate indices along geophysical gradients (wave exposure and different measures of bathymetry) at the Norwegian Skagerrak using spatial modelling and suggest areas for which reduced reference conditions should be considered.
Dr. Hege Gundersen is educated from the University of Oslo (PhD in 2003) and is at present a researcher at Norwegian Institute for Water Research. Her research interests are within spatial distribution modelling, and GIS modelling of species and habitats in marine environments, such as kelp, seaweed, sea urchins, eelgrass and soft sediment diversity. Gundersen is the Norwegian coordinator in the "Nordic Network for Marine Inventories and Modelling" and a member of the advisory group for the Norwegian Nature.
Velkommen til faglunsj torsdag 19. mars 11.30-12.00
"Fish in fragmented rivers - ecological and evolutionary effects of dams on salmonids" med Casper H.A van Leeuwen, UiO.
Habitat fragmentation is a long known yet growing problem in many worldwide ecosystems. Particularly in linear river systems, tens of thousands of dams and weirs affect the movement of a wide variety of aquatic species. Migratory fishes are among the species that are mostly affected by barriers in rivers, as many migrate great distances between feeding, overwintering and spawning areas throughout their annual cycle. My work focuses on both the ecological and evolutionary consequences of river fragmentation for migratory fish, which I study in Norway´s two largest river systems: Glomma and Lågen. Using acoustic telemetry data, long-term capture-mark-recapture studies and genetic tools on European grayling (Thymallus thymallus) and brown trout (Salmo trutta) populations, I show how reduced connectivity can have direct, indirect as well as long-term consequences for migratory fish populations.
As a movement ecologist I am interested in dispersal and migration of both plants and animals. Freshwater ponds, lakes and rivers are particularly interesting study systems in which to investigate dispersal and migration, as movement of aquatic species is often linear (river systems) or restricted by land (ponds and lakes). I study how organisms spread through such challenging landscapes, how they can colonize or invade new areas, and how this affects (meta-)populations. My research focuses on how movement, and notably restriction of movement, affects individual life history strategies, population structures, and whole communities: on both ecological and evolutionary time scales.
Velkommen til faglunsj torsdag 12. mars 11.30-12.00
"Elements of freshwater ecosystem health" med Benoît Demars.
|Benoît Demars is an aquatic ecologist specialising in river ecosystem functioning (metabolism, trophic interactions, nutrient cycling, hydraulics) and conservation of aquatic plants (distribution, diversity, phylogeny, traits including stoichiometry). He is testing and developing new methods to assess aquatic ecosystem health. He does not think that the current implementation of the European Union Water Framework Directive assesses and protects adequately our aquatic ecosystems and work hard towards the generation of a more integrative and causative framework. This has implications for the assessment of the success of aquatic ecosystem restoration and the valuation of ecosystem services.
Benoît is actively involved in the peer-reviewed publication of research findings (notably Freshwater Biology, Water, Knowledge and Management of Aquatic Ecosystems) and a member of the IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) Species Survival Commission, Freshwater Plant group.
Elements of freshwater ecosystem health
The global population still increases at an alarming rate, energy demand per capita increases, inegality increases in the context of limited planetary resources and uncertain technological progress. With global exchange comes ecological footprints, largely out of our sight, especially under the mirror of the surface of aquatic ecosystems. The need to assess aquatic ecosystem health is vital at the time of the anthropocene. Today, our concepts and methods of ecological valuation are rather primitive. Several bioindication tools will be presented and discussed with examples of the effects of nutrient enrichment and physical alteration (temperature, hydraulics) from river reach to river network and national scales.
Velkommen til faglunsj torsdag 26. februar 11.30-12.00
"A synthesis of recently published papers that employ the biodynamic model to investigate the accumulation of Me NPs to aquatic invertebrates" med Farhan Kahn, Roskilde Universitet, Danmark.
Farhan Khan’s research interests are broadly described as trace metal ecotoxicology in the aquatic environment. Metals provide a unique challenge to the environmental regulatory community and remain one of the most ubiquitous, persistent and complex contaminants. Issues encompass both the historical, such as the legacy of mining, and new hazards, such as metal-nanoparticles (Me-NPs). Farhan’s research involves both established and emerging risks, including, but not limited to, mechanisms of uptake, accumulation dynamics, detoxification strategies and trophic transfer. Recent research has also focussed plastic litter and particularly the role of microplastics in transporting other contaminants, the so-called ‘vector-effect’
Here he will present a synthesis of recently published papers that employ the biodynamic model to investigate the accumulation of Me NPs to aquatic invertebrates. The biodynamic model deconstructs accumulation into singular unidirectional processes (uptake and elimination from food and water) that can be experimentally derived. Such studies provide information on the bioavailability of metal entering the environment in NP form, their potential internal fate and toxicity.
Velkommen til faglunsj torsdag 19. februar 11.30-12.00
We will present the key results of an ETC/EEA report exploring the possibilities of linking data on types of rivers and lakes, their status, pressures and restoration measures as required by two EU directives, the Water Framework Directive (WFD) and the Habitats Directive (HD). Many national WFD types have high similarity and were aggregated into 20 broad river types and 15 broad lake types based on altitude, size and geology. The ecological status of rivers and lakes is best for water bodies in highland areas with siliceous geology and worst for small water bodies in lowland areas with calcareous geology, which is consistent with the different pressure intensities. Rivers and lakes in the Alpine and Boreal areas of Europe are in better status and have less pressures than those in other parts of Europe. WFD types status and pressures are mostly consistent with HD types conservation status and threats. Inconsistencies are due to non-comparable types/habitats and/or to non-comparable assessment systems. Multiple benefit measures for water management and nature protection are removal of fish migration barriers and restoration of riparian zones to enhance biodiversity and improve retention of water and pollution.
These results may be used as a basis for EU comparisons of national nutrient standards, for future EEA assessments of status, pressures and measures after the 2nd cycle of reporting of WFD river basin management plans in 2016, and for discussions of WFD and HD synergies in terms of monitoring programmes, assessment systems and measures to improve status.
Velkommen til faglunsj torsdag 12. februar 11.30-12.00.
A carbon balance of Norway: terrestrial and aquatic carbon fluxes" med Heleen de Wit.
Heleen de Wit will present a recently published paper "A carbon balance of Norway: terrestrial and aquatic carbon fluxes" (Biogeochemistry, 2015). This paper shows that Norway would be much worse off in terms of climate gas emissions if it hadn't been for its terrestrial ecosystems. Also, she will show that rivers transport huge quantities of carbon - but that the importance of waterways in the terrestrial carbon balance may be less than good NIVA-ists could hope for. It is her hope to pinpoint some themes for further research.