1. Study the transformation of a range of ENMs with different physicochemical properties.
2. Detect and quantify ENMs and their transformation products in biosolids, soils and sediments.
3. Assess the sublethal and long-term impacts of transformed ENMs relative to ‘pristine’ ENMs on terrestrial and sediment organisms.
4. Study the uptake and biodistribution of transformed ENMs on selected relevant species and ENM-cell interactions with in vitro models
5. Integrate the data in a fate and exposure model incorporating transformation processes
6. Perform risk assessment of ENMs released in soil and sediments