VKM has evaluated the risk to biodiversity from allowing private import and keeping of the Northern Cardinal as a caged bird in Norway, for birds acquired through the bird trade. VKM has reviewed the invasion ecology of non-native birds in general and of the Northern Cardinal specifically. The assessment includes evaluation of various mechanisms that invasive birds generally have a negative impact through, and includes competition, hybridization, spread of pathogens and interactions with other alien species in Norway. VKM has also evaluated two different scenarios establishment and how climate change can influence both the negative impact and the likelihood of establishment. Overall, VKM finds that there is low risk in regards negative effects on biodiversity in Norway in regard to import and keeping of the Northern Cardinal.