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Trends and patterns in surface water chemistry in Europe and North America between 1990 and 2016, with particular focus on changes in land use as a confounding factor for recovery

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Øyvind Aaberg Garmo, Øyvind Kaste, Jens Arle, Kari Austnes, Heleen de Wit, Jens Fölster, Daniel Houle, Jakub Hruska, Iveta Indriksone, Don Monteith, Michaela Rogora, James Edward Sample, Sandra Steingruber, John L. Stoddard, Reet Talkop, Wayne Trodd, Rafał Piotr Ulańczyk, Jussi Vuorenmaa


The report presents trends in sulphate, nitrate, chloride, base cations, ANC (acid neutralising capacity), pH and DOC at circa 500 ICP Waters sites in Europe and North America for the period 1990-2016. Time series were analysed for trends in annual median values, annual extreme values and change points, that indicate years with sudden changes in trend or level. Also provided is a brief overview of possible implications of land use change for recovery of acidified surface waters.