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1. Study the transformation of a range of ENMs with different physicochemical properties. 

2. Detect and quantify ENMs and their transformation products in biosolids, soils and sediments.

3. Assess the sublethal and long-term impacts of transformed ENMs relative to ‘pristine’ ENMs on terrestrial and sediment organisms.

4. Study the uptake and biodistribution of transformed ENMs on selected relevant species and ENM-cell interactions with in vitro models

5. Integrate the data in a fate and exposure model incorporating transformation processes

6. Perform risk assessment of ENMs released in soil and sediments