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Work packages

ENTRANS consists of 5 work packages that are interlinked



WP1 will study the ENM transformation occurring in biosolids, soil (after biosolid application) and sediment compartments and provide detailed characterization of ENM used in the project. 

Characterization will include the isotopically labelled ENM as well as the ENM during transformation in environmental and biological matrices and exposure media. The occurrence and levels in final biosolids from WWTPs (primary and secondary treatment plants in Oslo and Trondheim), soils and sediments will be determined.


WP2 aims to assess the impacts of transformed ENM on terrestrial organisms via biosolid application. The impacts of biosolids from a pilot WWTP and ENM synthetically aged in biosolids from WWTP with different treatment processes will be assessed.


WP3 aims to study the uptake, biodistribution and sub-lethal effects of transformed ENM in sediment-dwelling organisms of both marine and freshwater environments. The cell-transformed particle interactions will be studied in detail using in vitro models.


WP4 will contribute to the ongoing development of fate-exposure and dose-response models using the results on the transformation, uptake, biodistribution and effects obtained in WP1-3. Risk assessment will be performed based on the obtained occurrence and effects data for soils and sediments.


WP5 aims to ensure that the project activities and outcomes are effectively disseminated to the scientific community, stakeholders and general public.